Why Women Are More Likely To Live Longer Than Men

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Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have a few clues and اوضاع الجماع the evidence isn't strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in women's longevity more than males, it isn't clear what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of the weight, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men today however not as in the past, has to relate to the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was not as great.
Let's look at how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to verify that these two points are applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.